A Dictionary of the Fuchsia™
Want to know what those mysterious terms mean and just who the people were behind those names? Then this is the place for you.
Want to know what those mysterious terms mean and just who the people were behind those names? Then this is the place for you.
Tacanensis – From Tacaná, in the San Marcos department of Guatemala. Tacaná Volcano lies here, part of the Central American Core volcanic chain, and the area is noted for the richness of its biodiversity, particularly in the high mountain ecosystems. However, Fuchsia tacanensis (Lundell 1940) is an unresolved name or synonym.
Tachira – Referring to the state of Táchira, located in north-western Venezuela on its border with Colombia. Fuchsia x tachira appears to be invalid as a formally published taxon and apparently refers to a naturally occurring hybrid between Fuchsia gehrigeri x Fuchsia venusta, both found in the state. With the addition of Fuchsia nigricans and Fuchsia verrucosa, four species are sympatric to the Venezuelan Andes and all possible putative hybrid combinations between these species, excepting Fuchsia verrucosa, have been observed there by botanists. These hybrids are, however, usually not assigned names.
(Illustration: Fuchsia venusta (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823) drawn by Louis van Houtte in Flore des serres et des jardin de l’Europe, Vol. 5, p. 538 (1849)
Tacsoniiflora – Having flowers resembling Tacsonia. Once a distinct genus but now a synonym of Passiflora, the passionflower. Tacsonia is also the name of a supersection or subgenus within Passiflora. The noted close resemblence between these passionflowers and some fuchsias seems to have gone in both directions. Passiflora fuchsiiflora, or the fuchsia-flowered passionflower, was described by British botanist William Hemsley in 1898. Interestingly Hemsley (1843-1924) was the Keeper of the Herbarium and Library at Kew Gardens and published on "The Apetalous Fuchsias of South America" in the Journal of Botany (14:69-70) in 1875. He himself would be honored with Fuchsia hemsleyana, though currently a synonym of Fuchsia microphylla subsp. hemsleyana (Woodson & Seibert, Breedlove 1937). Hemsley's name, however, is still preserved in Fuchsia sect. Hemsleyella. Despite the colorful floral cross connections, Fuchsia tacsoniiflora (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is now also a synonym of Fuchsia denticulata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Compare left, F. denticulata Ruiz & Pav. [as F. serratifolia Ruiz & Pav.] from Edwards’s Botanical Register, vol. 31: t. 41 (1845) and, right, Passiflora mollisima (Kunth) L.H. Bailey as Tacsonia mollissima Kunth from Edwards’s Botanical Register, vol. 32: t. 11 (1846). Both drawings are by Sarah Drake (1803-1857), one of the most accomplished botanical illustrators of her time.)
Tamaensis – From Tama-Tama in Venezuela. Fuchsia verrucosa var. tamaensis (Steyerm. 1952) is a synonym of Fuchsia verrucosa (Hartw. ex Benth. 1845) in ➤ Section Verrucosa.
Taxa – See Taxon.
Taxon – Any group of plants with the same name. The term's correct Latin plural is taxa. The plural taxons, however, is also often used in English, especially in non-scientific writings or informal contexts.
Taxonomy – The science of classifying plant and animals into an ordered system of groups and categories to indicate natural relationships.
Tenella – Small, delicate, tender. Fuchsia tenella (Lindl.) G.Don 1830) is a synonym of Fuchsia magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Terete – Having a smooth circular cross-section; cylindrical. When referring to a plant stem it usually, but not necessarily, might imply a tapering form.
Ternate – Said of leaves when arranged in groups or whorls of three around the stem. Many fuchsias will often have stems with opposite pairs of leaves along with ones with ternately arranged leaves. Cuttings taken from the ternate stems are desirable because they will result in bushier plants more quickly.
Tetrad – In Botany, a group of four cells, such as spores or pollen grains, formed by the division of one mother cell. Pollen of Fuchsia, along with that of other members of the Onagraceae family, is characteristically shed in tetrads. See Pollen.
Tetradactyla – Having four fingers or digits. Fuchsia tetradactyla (Lindl. 1846) is an unresolved name or synonym. See also Fuchsia encliandra subsp. tetradactyla in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Tetragonous - Having four sides as in a tetragon; quadrilateral.
Thiéry de Ménonville, Nicholas-Joseph (1739-1780) – French botanist sent to Mexico in 1776 on a clandestine mission to acquire the cochineal scale insect highly valued for the bright crimson-red carmine dye extracted from their dried powdered bodies. He was successful and attempted to naturalize the insect, as well as the prickly pear cactus called nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) on which it fed, in the French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola. Despite reports of failure, the plantation appears to have initially been a success, with a nopalry reportedly numbering in the thousands of cacti, but the venture was neglected after his death in 1780 and ultimately seems to have been destroyed in the turmoils and slave revolts that engulfed the colony after the French Revolution.
Thiéry's colorful, but still potentially dangerous, exploits against the Spanish were published in the Voyage à Guaxaca (Oaxaca). Presenting himself in the guise of a botanizing physician searching for remedies in the treatment of gout, he journeyed from Saint-Domingue to Havana where he botanized as he waited for transport to Veracruz. Arriving in Veracruz in January 1777, he quickly endeared himself by identifying the tubers of a locally abundant morning-glory vine, Ipomea purga, as a source of an expensive imported cathartic drug, jalap.
Sensing something amiss, however, the viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa ordered him to leave, unwilling "to open to strangers the secrets of the country". Imagining himself a modern counterpart of Jason and the Golden Fleece, he quietly slipped over the ramparts of the city and set out for Oaxaca, source of the best cochineal dyes, claiming to be a Catalan in order to disguise his French-accented Spanish and his dress. There he finally managed to purchase some cochineal insects and cactus pads from the locals.
Adding other valuable commercial plants, such as vanilla pods, the Ipomea purga he had noted in Veracruz, indigo and cotton seeds, all jumbled among the nondescript herbal specimens in his collecting case, he returned to Saint-Domingue. Back at Port-au-Prince, Thiéry started a nopalry in the Jardin du Roi, the botanical garden that he established there, and sent further specimens of his insects and pads to the scientific academy at Cap-Français. With the great success of his adventure he was
rewarded with the title of Botaniste du Roi and given an annuity of six thousand livres. He was not to enjoy his new-found status and security for long, however, as he died of a "malignant fever" within two years of his return to Saint-Domingue.
Thiéry sought to establish a potentially lucrative commercial industry for the French government in his quest for cochineals. Interestingly, it was Charles Plumier, the botanist who had undertaken three successful missions to the Caribbean about a hundred years earlier and had also been appointed a Royal Botantist for his work, who had definitively proven that the cochineal was an insect from his observations on Martinique.
Among the plant specimens Thiéry collected on Hispaniola was also Fuchsia triphylla, the first fuchsia discovered and described by Plumier as well. This Thiéry collection is still preserved at the Linnean Society of London. It is in the Society's Smith Herbarium among forty-three other botanical specimens from Saint-Domingue ascribed to him. Undated, it would probably have been collected sometime between Thiéry's return to Saint-Domingue in 1778 and his death at Port-au-Prince in 1780.
(Illustration: 1 & 2. Opuntia ficus-indica and top and bottom views of female cochineals, Traité de la culture du nopal, et de l'éducation de la cochenille dans les colonies-françaises de l'Amérique; précédé d'un Voyage a Guaxaca, 1787; 3. Detail from the dried herbarium specimen identified as Fuchsia triphylla and preserved at the Linnean Society of London.)
Thierry, "Baron" Charles de – See ➤ Heraldry.
Thilco – Also tilco or tilko. The name by which Fuchsia magellanica was recorded by the astronomer and cartographer Louis Feuillée (a Minim monk and student of Charles Plumier) in his Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714). Feuillée had observed the plant in Chile on his exploratory trip through Argentina, Chile and Peru from 1707-1711. Thilco is a linguistic variation of the native Mapuche chilco, apparently used by the related Mapuche (Mapudungun)-speaking Picunche, then living in Chile's Central Valley but now extinct.
Fuchsia magellanica would be first formally described as a Fuchsia when Lamarck officially published the species in 1788. Feuillée was oddly inaccurate in stating that thilco had five-petalled flowers and illustrated ten stamens coming out of them instead of eight. It was this mistake that would lead Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) to publish thilco not as a Fuchsia but as Thilcum tinctorium in 1810.
The name is also spelled thilko, tilco and tilko. It should be noted that the "th" phoneme in thilco is meant to represent the consonant in the Mapudungun languages called a "voiceless retroflex stop" ( ʈ ) and not the "voiceless dental stop" ( t̪ ) of English, as is usually assumed by English speakers. This means that thilco is more properly pronounced to match the English word "time" (ʈaɪm), not "thin" (t̪ʰɪn). In fact, a good comparison is the pronunciation of the herb, thyme.
Thilco, meaning Fuchsia magellanica, should also not be mistaken for the confusingly named and apparently natural hybrid, Fuchsia magellanica x Fuchsia lycioides 'Thilco'.
See also Chilco, Feuillée, Magellanica, Molin, Thilcum tinctorium.
(Illustration: Thilco is on the left of part of the page in Feuillée's Journal. A verbena appears to the right.)
Thilcum tinctorium – The Chilean Jesuit naturalist and scientist, Juan Ignacio Molina (Italian: Giovanni Ignazio Molina; b. Chile 1740, d. Italy 1829), writing in the second enlarged edition of his Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili (1782) in 1810, placed the Chilean native Fuchsia magellanica (Lamarck 1788), known to him as thilco, into a new genus that he dubbed Thilcum tinctorium. Thilco (also tilco) was derived from the language of the Picunche, a Mapuche (Mapudungun)-speaking native people then living in Chile's Central Valley, and tinctorium referred to the fact that the bark and leaves of thilco, as Molina had already observed in the 1782 edition, were used to produce a black dye.
Molina wrote much about his beloved native country during his many years of exile in Italy. He and his fellow Jesuits had been expelled from Chile in 1768, sadly forever denying him a return. In establishing Thilcum tinctorium, Molina seems to have been in Italian exile too long to fully recollect thilco on his own and was unfortunately misled by inaccuracies in Louis Feuillée's report of it in the Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714).
Feuillée wrongly states that its flowers are five-petalled and depicts ten stamens coming out of each flower. Molina explicitly cites Feuillée's authority for creating the new genus reasoning that, while other authors report that the genus Fuchsia has four-petalled flowers and eight stamens, Feuillée indicates five for thilco: Thilco could therefore not be a Fuchsia.
Molina doesn't seem to have been aware that Lamarck had already published F. magellanica in 1788. He was aware of its synonym, F. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavon 1802), however, and of other fuchsias published under the name Coccinea.
Thilcum tinctorium is now synonymous with F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788).
(Illustration: Entry page of Thilco tinctorium in the second edition (1810) of Juan Ignacio Molina's Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili.)
Thompsonii – Possibly named in honor of Irish naturalist, William Thompson (1805-1852). F. thompsonii (Koehne 1893) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia. Fuchsia magellanica ‘Thompsonii’ is also a commonly gown cultivar.
Thunderbug, Thunderfly – Frankliniella occidentallis. See Western Flower Thrips.
Thrips – Frankliniella occidentallis. See Western Flower Thrips.
Thymifolia – Having leaves resembling those of the thyme plant (Thymus). See F. thymifolia in ➤ Section Encliandra, of which there are two subspecies.
Tillett, Stephen S. (b. 1930) – Tillet is an American botanist and specialist on the Passifloriaciae family, who collected botanical specimens in Peru and Venezuela. He is associated with the Universidad Central de Venezuela and the Missouri Botanical Garden. Tillett made the first collection a new fuchsia species which is now named in honor as Fuchsia tilletiana (Munz 1972). See Fuchsia tillettiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tillettiana – Named in honor of Stephen S. Tillett (b. 1930). See: Tillet; Fuchsia tillettiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tincta – Colored. See Fuchsia tincta in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Tinctorium – Indicates that the plant is used in dyeing, or has sap which can stain. See Thilcum tinctorium.
Tiret, Horace (1915-2012) – A Certified Public Accountant by trade, Tiret was a prolific American fuchsia hybridizer in San Francisco, California. He produced many enduring fuchsia classics over his long career. Perhaps because of the successful accounting firm he established, Tiret was also one of the first hybridizers to protect his crosses from commercial exploitation with plant patents (see also). Starting in 1944, along with another breeder named Clement Schnabel (see also), he grew his seedlings at the La Rochette Nursery of Victor Reiter Sr. & Jr. (see also) because he had no gardening facilities of his own at the time.
‘Rubeo' would be his public debut and was well-received when it was sold commercially at La Rochette in 1947. His many noteworthy plants were developed according to his self-described "five-year plan." Tiret's magnum opus was certainly 'Swingtime' (1950), which has became one of the most popular fuchsias of all time. 'Voodo,' released in 1953, is another plant that might also sit at the of any list. In 1954, Tiret was awarded the American Fuchsia Society's Medal of Achievement. In all, he released just under 130 plants from 1947 into the early 70’s.
Among his hybrids are many other names instantly recognized by fuchsia followers:
Amethyst (1941), Desert Rose (1946), Rubeo, Santa Cruz (1947), Ecstasy, Jack Shahan,
Sharon, Yuletide (1948), Bouffant, Moth Blue, Red Wing, Ric Rac, Tangerine, Uncle Charley (1949), Don Peralta, Du Barry, Estrellita, La Bianca, Maxine Elizabeth, Stolze von Berlin, Swingtime (1950), Bewitched, Enchanted, Streamliner (1951), Bachelor Girl, Blossom Time,Bridesmaid, Bunker Boy, Lace Petticoats (1952),Coronation, Lady Ann, Spring Shower, Voodoo, (1953), Gay Paree, Miss Frills, Sophia, Yonder Blue (1954), Bali Hi, Georgana, Millionaire, Pio Pico (1955), Carnival, Conspicuous, Papa Blues, Forever Yours (1956), Emberglow, Leeado, Lunado, Sunkissed, Sweet Leilani, Thunderbird (1957), Kernan Robson, Miss Vellejo, Penelope, Waikiki (1958), Angela Leslie, Mama Bleuss, Plum Pudding, Rambling Rose, Raspberry, (1959), Florentina, Great Scott, Leonora, Moulin Rouge, Pink Favorite, Sonata (1960), Adagio, Blue Lagoon, Danny Boy, Diablo, Flair (1961), Cotton Candy, Marty, Uncle Jeff, Uncle Mike, Uncle Steve (1962), Dilly Dilly, Lolita, Pepi, The Madame (1963), Blue Mist, Miss Louise, Royal Touch, San Diego, Tropicana (1964), Kon Tiki, La Neige, Maytime, Sampan (1965), Bora Bora, Kiwi, Maori Maid, Polynesia, Virginia Lund (1966), Crusader, Peachy Keen, Red Knight, Ruth King, The Pheonix (1967), Alfie, Allurement, Shelly Lynn, Tempest (1968), Deana Lebaron, Donna Marie, Gazebo, Pinch Me (1969), Deborah, Elizabeth, (1970), Orange Mirage, (1970) Alice Ashton, Beth Robley, Flavia, Shawnee, The Patriot (1971), Alyce Larson, Joan Helm, Louise Emmershaw, The Jester (1972).
(Illustration: Tiret's USPP No. 1206 listing him as the "inventor" of a new fuchsia. The application was filed in 1949 and granted in 1953. Although the plant is un-named, the patent lists Reiter's 'Titanic' as the female parent and 'Brazier' as the male; the description seems to match 'Sharon'.)
Tomentose – Covered in hairs.
Townsendii – Named in honor of Charles H. T. Townsend (1865-1944), American entomologist who worked in the United States, Mexico, Brazil and Peru. While his primary interest was insects, especially Diptera, he also widely collected plants on his field trips. Fuchsia townsendii (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of Fuchsia ayavacensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Toxicity – All parts of fuchsias are non-toxic to humans. See Edibility, Recipes.
Trailer – A fuchsia with a lax habit good for growing in hanging baskets or being trained into a standard.
Training – Also termed shaping. See also.
Transpiration – The emission of water vapor from plant leaves.
Tree Fuchsia – Common name for Fuchsia excorticata in ➤ Section Skinnera, or occasionally, for Fuchsia arborescens in ➤ Section Schufia. F. excorticata is also known in New Zealand by its native Maori name, Kotukutuku. There are additionally a number of unrelated plants often popularly, but inaccurately, called "tree fuchsias." See ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Tribe – A taxonomic rank placed between a family and a genus. In the case of families divided into subfamilies, the tribe lies below the subfamily. In large families, they are occasionally divided into subtribes. The standard ending of tribe names is -eae. Fuchsia is placed in the Circaeeae tribe of the Onagroideae subfamily within the Onagraceae family (see also).
Triphylla – Having leaves in sets of three. Fuchsia triphylla, flore coccineo… (Three-leaved, scarlet-flowered fuchsia…) was the first fuchsia discovered and described by Charles Plumier on Hispaniola in about 1696-97. Plumier's long descriptive name was later shortened to Fuchsia triphylla by Linnaeus in accordance with his binomial system.
Contrary to what is stated in many references, Plumier does not seem to have sent any actual plant material to be grown in Europe. About 1730, however, Philip Miller (see also) received the seeds of a fuchsia shipped from "Carthagena in New Spain" [sic] from fellow Scotsman and botanist William Houstoun. This fuchsia, identified with Plumier's species, was apparently successfully grown at the Chelsea Physic Garden for a number of years before disappearing from cultivation at some point. Since Miller was head gardener from 1722 to 1771, it's unclear at what date the plant was lost. Unfortunately, no preserved specimen has survived and there is some doubt that it was actually Fuchsia triphylla as Houston collected in modern Venezuela, not Hispaniola.
Lost for many years, Fuchsia triphylla was rediscovered when seeds collected in Haiti in the 1870s for the New York nurseryman, Thomas Hogg, Jr. (see also), were sent to Kew for identification in 1882. Carl Bonstedt (see also) would use it to breed a range of new hybrids in Germany from about 1904 to 1915.
See Fuchsia triphylla in ➤ Section Fuchsia; Triphylla Hybrids.
Triphylla Hybrids or Triphyllas – A group of hybrid crosses between Fuchsia triphylla and other species, perhaps primarily Fuchsia fulgens and Fuchsia boliviana, that closely resemble the trumpet-shaped terminally held flowers and generally upright growth habit of F.uchsia triphylla. Many were bred in Germany by Carl Bonstedt (see also) from about 1904 to 1915. Among his hybrids are such commonly grown classics, such as 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt' and 'Thalia.'
(Illustration: Fuchsia 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt.')
Tube – The elongated part of the calyx. Its correct scientific name is the hypanthium.
Tuber – Tubers are enlarged plant structures that store nutrients to help the plant survive over winter or through other seasonally dry months. They provide the plant with both energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next active growing season. Tubers can be formed by plants from both modified stems and roots and should not be confused with rhizomes, which are only formed from modified stems. Some fuchsia species, such as F. pachyrizza or F. apetala, have evolved to develop tuberous roots most likely in response to the harsher ecological conditions of their habitats. See also rhizomes.
Tuberosa – Tuberous. Fuchsia tuberosa (K.Krause 1905) is a synonym of Fuchsia salicifolia (Hemsl. 1876) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tunariensis – Meaning either from the Cerro Tunari, a volcano in the Tunari National Park, in the Cochabamba Department of Bolivia, or from Villa Tunari (Tunari), a small town also in the same Department. See Fuchsia tunariensis in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Turgid – In botany, a plant with swollen tissues that are filled with moisture.
Type Species – In taxonomy, the species to which a genus is anchored, often the first one described when it was established. In botany, the type species is usually a physical specimen or drawing. Fuchsia triphylla is the type species for Fuchsia.
USS Fuchsia – Built by Fincourt in New York City during the winter of 1862, the United States Ship Fuchsia was a 98-foot screw-propelled steam tug acquired by the Union Navy in June 1863 for use during the American Civil War. Commissioned in August of 1863, the Fuchsia was commanded by Acting Master W. T. Street. She was assigned to the Potomac River Flotilla for patrol and reconnaissance duty on the Potomac and several other rivers where she was involved in a number of successful missions. She was often fired on by Confederate forces and bravely returned fire. In October 1863, along with the USS Currituck, she captured the steamer Three Brothers on the Rappahannock River of Virginia. With the end of the war, however, the USS Fuchsia was no longer needed. She was decommissioned by the Navy in August 1865 and sold in September of that same year. It's unclear what subsequently became of the ship.
(Illustration: USS Fuchsia, US Government Printing Office, 1897.)
Umbrosa – Shady. F. umbrosa (Benth. 1845) is a synonym of F. loxensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Unduavensis – From Unduavi in La Paz Department, Bolivia. F. unduavensis (Munz 1943)is a synonym of F. apetala (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Uniflora – Single flowered. F. uniflora (Sessé & Moç. 1888) is a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Encliandra.
University of Leicester National Collection of Hardy Fuchsia – See National Collections (UK).
Upright – A fuchsia, especially a cultivar, that exhibits mostly stiff vertical growth that makes it suitable for growing as a bush or shrub in the ground or in a pot.
Urban, Ignaz (1848–1931; Also Ignatz or Ignatius) – German botanist known for his work on the flora of the Caribbean and Brazil. Urban was appointed the assistant head of the Berlin Botanical Garden when the famed botanist and phylogenetic and evolutionary taxonomist, A. W. Eichler (1839-1887), was appointed head of Botany at the University of Berlin in 1878. In 1883, Urban was promoted to the position of curator. Urban would supervise the transfer of the Botanical Garden from its original site to a new home at its present site in Berlin-Dahlem.
He worked as Eichler's assistant on the Flora Brasiliensis and lated succeeded him as editor, when he died in 1887, until the completion of the work in 1906. In 1884, Urban started work with Leopold Krug on his Puerto Rican collections and their collaboration produced the nine-volume Symbolae Antillanae (1898-1928), one of Urban’s most important contributions to botany, and his thirty-volume Sertum Antillanum.
Urban's herbarium, estimated at 80,000 or more sheets, was tragically destroyed in 1943 when the Berlin Herbarium was bombed by the Allies during the Second World War.
Nestled among Urban’s many Caribbean contributions in the Symbolae Antillaniae was a new fuchsia species from Santo Domingo on Hispaniola, described in 1899 as Fuchsia pringsheimii (see also). The name was in honor of fellow German botanist and founder of the German Botanical Society, Nathanael Pringsheim (1823-1894), who had only recently died (see also). The original collection was made by Henrik [Heinrich] Baron von Eggers (1844–1903). Eggers was a Danish military officer posted to the Danish Antilles (US Virgin Islands since 1917) who became a botanist after retirement. He botanized extensively in the Caribbean and was in Santo Domingo in 1887 (Eggers No. 2159).
Vandelli, Domenico (1735-1816; Domingos Vandelli in Portugese) – Vandelli was a noted Italian naturalist and botanist, originally from Padua, who worked primarily in Portugal. On the recommendation of Linnaeus, he was brought to Lisbon in 1764 by the great Portuguese reformer, the Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782), to teach chemistry and the natural sciences at the Real Colégio dos Nobres, a sort of preparatory school founded by Pombal to teach the sons of the aristocracy. Unfortunately, his field failed to fully capture the attention of the young aristocrats and he quickly returned to Italy.
Pombal lured him back again in 1765, this time to teach at the University of Coimbra, which was being reformed by the Marquês and where Vandelli found a better class of students for his teaching. He was the first director of the Botanical Garden at Coimbra until 1791, when he retired from the University. In 1793 he became the first director of the Ajuda Botanical Gardens in Lisbon. He was also one of the founders of the Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. Vandelli remained in Portugal for most of his long career contributing much with his studies and many publications and holding a number of important positions.
Particularly noteworthy was his Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen published in 1788. In it Vandelli describes an interesting new plant called Quelusia without, however, attaching any particular species name to it. While somewhat disoriented by the artist conforming all the flowers illustrated on the pages to face upwards, the accompanying line drawing is informative and definitely confirms Quelusia as a fuchsia. Neither the drawing of the flower nor the written description, though, really allow for the plant's precise dentification as anything more than a Brazilian fuchsia of some sort. Aiton (see also) attributes the introduction of F. coccinea to a Captain Firth from Chile. Salisbury (see also), however, implicates Vandelli. Recent research seems to indicate that both are partially correct.
Florae was based partly on the work of the noted Brazillian botanist and secular Jesuit priest, Joaquim Veloso de Miranda (1733-1815), who was born in the town of Inficionado (today called Santa Rita Durão) in Minas Gerais. From a wealthy family of land and mine owners, Veloso de Miranda came to Portugal to study at the University of Coimbra, and later to teach alongside Vandelli. He later returned to his native Brazil where he botanized for a number of years.
Among the collections sent back to Vandelli might logically have been the relatively rare F. coccinea . It is endemic to only a few mountain ridges in Minas Gerais near his home town and base of study. Vandelli's entry might possibly have been based on a number of other similarly flowered Quelusia section fuchsias, such as F. regia ssp. regia also endemic to parts of Minas Gerais, but the concurrent spread of F. coccinea to areas such as St. Helena and Madiera does seem point to it as the fuchsia behind Quelusia. Vandelli also makes reference to Forster's Skinnera (Forster & Forster 1776), now F.excorticata, in his Florae.
Vandelli's later life would be far from the quiet and studious retirement he probably envisioned. Much of Europe was in turmoil during the Napoleanic Wars (1803-1815) and French armies would invade the Iberian Penninsula to occupy most of Portugal. Moments before the capture of Lisbon in 1807, the entire Portuguese royal family and court (by some estimates up to 15,000 people in all) fled into exile in Brazil with the help of the British Royal Navy. Remaining in Portugal, Vandelli apparently belonged to the liberal, pro-French faction in the country.
Acting against Britain's trade interests and foreign policies—which had essentially turned Portugal and its colonies into British protectorates—Vandelli actively collaborated with the French even helping them transfer valuable museum collections, such as the important specimens from Brazil, to Paris. With the gradual defeat of French forces and the arrival of the Duke of Wellington in Lisbon in 1810, the aged Vandelli was arrested and summarily deported to the Azores on the frigate Amazona, along with a number of others. It was only due to the intercession of Sir Joseph Banks and his other friends at the Royal Society in London, of which he was a member, that he was transferred to exile in England. The two men had become friends when Banks had stayed in Lisbon for six months in 1766. He was only allowed to return to Portugal in 1815.
N.B. Vandelli is not to be confused with Domenico Vandelli (1691-1754), an Italian cartographer, scientist and mathematician of the name.
(Illustrations: 1. Detail Fig. 10. Quelusia (F. coccinea) from Vandelli's Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen, 1788; 2. Detail from Page 23 starting the treatment of Quelusia. It continues onto page 24.)
Vargas Calderón, Julio (1903/1905-2002) – César Vargas was a Peruvian botanist at the University of Cuzco. He was active exploring and collecting the flora of Peru from 1936-1967. Among his many collections were at least a dozen fuchsia species, including one new to science, discovered in 1936 growing between Yanamayo and Tambomayo in the Cuzco Department of Peru, that was to be dubbed F. vargasiana by Paul Munz (1946). He was intensely interested in the conservation of Peru's wildlife and 143 species in various genera were to be named in his honor. See F. vargasiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Vargasiana – Named in honor of Julio César Vargas Calderón (1903 or 1905-2002). See: Vargas; F. vargasiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Variegated, Variegation – Plants with leaves that are patched, streaked or edged with white, cream, various shades of green or even red or pink. Some variegations are not stable and the plant will put out normal shoots. These reversions are usually more vigorous that the variegated ones so they should be removed to avoid overwhelming the plant.
(Illustration: 'Tom West.')
Variety or Varietas – In botanical classification, a taxonomic rank just below the level of a species but not as important as a subspecies. Varieties have different appearances but hybridize easily. The name should not be confused with cultivars, or cultivated varieties, as varieties occur naturally. The term may often be used imprecisely by horticulturalists, such as when speaking of "grape varieties." Outside of taxonomy, a plant variety may also have a statutory definition that differs from its botanical one.
Veloso, José Mariano de Conceição (1759-1811) – Veloso (also sometimes written as Velloso or Vellozo; in his own style, Joze Marianno da Concepção Vellozo) was a Brazilian priest, teacher of geometry rhetoric and the natural sciences, botanist and plant explorer whose important work, Florae Fluminensis, was only finally and posthumously published in 1825–27 and 1831. Born in São José del Rei (now called Tiradentes) in Minas Gerais, Veloso was the son of José Veloso da Câmara and the cousin of Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, a leader of the unsuccessful Brazilian independence movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira and later a celebrated national hero. As the title of his magnum opus attests, Veloso collected extensively in Rio de Janeiro province until 1790 when he left for Lisbon. He returned to Brazil in 1808 after the royal family and court fled there during the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. According to Thomas Borgmeier (1892-1975) in A historia da "Flora Fluminensis" de Frei Velloso (1937), Veloso first drew Quelusia regia (F. regia) from nature while collecting in the "Pharmacopolitan Alps" (Serra da Bocaina mountain range near Paraty), on the way to Cunha near the São Paulo border with Rio de Janeiro, sometime between 1779-1787. It is illustrated on plate six of the fourth volume of Flora Fluminensis. For Quelusia, see also Vandelli, Veloso de Miranda.
(Illustration: Unpainted plate of Quelusia regia [F. regia], tab. 6 in vol. 4 of the Icones of Florae Fluminensis, 1825-1827.)
Veloso de Miranda, Joaquim (1733-1815) – Veloso de Miranda was a noted Brazillian botanist and secular Jesuit priest who was born in the town of Inficionado (today called Santa Rita Durão) in Minas Gerais. From a wealthy family of land and mine owners, Veloso de Miranda came to Portugal to study at the University of Coimbra, and later to teach alongside Domenico Vandelli, before returning to his native Brazil where he botanized for a number of years. Among the collections sent back to Vandelli, which he used in his Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen (1788) might logically have been the relatively rare F. coccinea which is endemic to only a few mountain ridges in Minas Gerais near his home town and base. (See also Aiton, Salisbury, Vandelli.)
Velutina – Velvety. F. velutina (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of F. corymbiflora (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Venusta – Beautiful or charming. See F. venusta (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. Fuchsia venusta var. huilensis (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F. venusta.
Venation – The pattern of veins on a leaf's surface,
Ventral – The lower surface or underside, especially of a leaf.
Venus Victrix – The earliest-known fuchsia with a white calyx (tube and sepals). The plant was raised in 1840 by John Gulliver, gardener to the Rev. William Marriott Smith-Marriott (1801-1864) at Rectory Park in Horsmonden, Kent. Gulliver sold it to Messrs. Cripps & Son, plant breeders and owners of a nursery in neighboring Tunbridge Wells, where it was propagated and released in 1842. The cultivar is slow growing and somewhat difficult in cultivation but is important as the ancestor of many later, better cultivars with white tubes and sepals.
(Illustration: Detail of Fuchsia 'Venus Victrix' from Joseph Harrison. Floricultural Cabinet & Florist's Review, 1843, Volume 10, Plate 169.)
Verrucosa, verrucose – Covered in warts; warty. See F. verrucosa, the single species in Section Verrucosa,
Viscine – A sticky alkaloid substance found on pollen grains. It's purpose is to help adhere the grains together and onto pollinators so that they can be more securely transferred to other flowers for effective pollination.
Viscine Threads – Pollen from the Ornagraceae family, of which Fuchsia is a member, is characterized by viscine threads on tetrads and is easily differentiated under the microscope from that of other angiosperms, both in living plants and in the fossil record. See Pollen, Tetrad.
Vine Weevil – Otiorhynchus vulgates. The nocturnally-active Vine Weevil will eat small semicircular notches out of fuchsia leaves but this damage is mostly a cosmetic annoyance; the real damage is done after the beetle lays its eggs on the compost and its white grubs start to feed on the plant's roots. Grubs in the pots of a dormant plant can even eat the entire root system if they are carried over the winter in the compost. The slow-moving adults can be located while hunting with a flashlight at night and eliminated. But proceed more carefully in the daytime as the weevils drop down to play dead and might be hard to locate. Their shells are fairly hard so a bit of force is necessary to dispatch them. Biological controls include nematodes. Systemic and appropriately labelled grub control treatments are also effective.
Virgata – Shaped like a rod or wand; straight, long and thin; plants with a habit of straight, erect branches. Fuchsia virgata (Sweet ex Jacques 1834) is a synonym of Fuchsia magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Voorhelm Schneevogt, George (1775-1850) – See Schneevoogt.
Vulcanica – From the slope of a volcano; in fuchsias, perhaps, specifically from the slopes of the great Chimborazo, in the Chimborazo Province of Ecuador to which F. vulcanica is native. Chimborazo was once thought to be the highest mountain on earth and held a particular fascination for European explorers. There were several attempts to scale its summit, including one by geographer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt in 1802. It was finally conquered twice in the same year by Edward Whymper: The first time early in 1880 with Louis and Jean-Antoine Carrel and then again later that same year with two Ecuadoreans, David Beltrán and Francisco Campaña, simply to prove to skeptics that he had done it. Édouard André (see also), who discovered and described F. vulcanica (which grows in the region from about 2,500 meters to the tree line at about 4,000 meters) passed by the great mountain, located about halfway between Quito and Loja, on his expedition through Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela in 1875-1876. He journeyed from Tulcán through Quito and Riobamba to Guayaquil on the coast. While there is some evidence that a number of André's specimens were actually collected on commission for him by plant hunters such as the Belgian, Hugo Poortman (1858-1953), who collected much further south in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe Provinces, this doesn't seem to be the case with F. vulcanica as André himself passed directly through the region.
See F. vulcanica in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland at the foot of Chimborazo Volcano. Painting by Friedrich Georg Weitsch, oil on canvas, 1810.)
Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823-1913) – One of the most brilliant scientists of the nineteenth century, Wallace was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist, as well as a social activist and proponent of social and economic reform. Wallace quite independently conceived the theory of evolution through natural selection but has long been unfairly overshadowed by the more-famous reputation of Charles Darwin. Initially he braved hardship and danger for four years collecting and exploring in the wilds of the Amazon River basin from 1848, simply leaving his job as a surveyor to make a name for himself in the service of science. In 1854, Wallace set off again for the tropics, braving yet more hardship and danger, including bouts of malaria and dogs stealing his animal collections, for eight years in the Malay Archipelago.
He amassed tens of thousand of specimens and even managed to put it all together into a grand picture to identify the Wallace Line dividing the fauna of the archipelago into two distinct halves, the western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion which reflects Australasia. And develop his own theories on evolution and the survival of the fittest. Probably influenced by the hardship and danger of his expeditions, it might seem. Besides being a co-founder of evolution, Wallace is also considered the Father of Biogeography, the study of the distribution of species across the earth and through time. Among Wallace's many other contributions to evolutionary theory is the Wallace Effect, or how natural selection might drive speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization.
While the flora of the region doesn't quite follow the same demarcation, the Wallace Line is an interesting observation as Fuchsia was once found in Australia, as evidenced by fossil pollen of the late Oligocene and early Miocene, before the continent drifted too far towards the equator and the genus went extinct. New Guinea, in fact, represents the leading edge of the Australasian continental plate and its highlands still harbor unique remnants of the Antarcto-Tertiary Geoflora that once spread from South America across Antarctica to Austrailia (➤ History of the Fuchsia).
Today Fuchsia is only preserved far to the east of the Wallace Line, in New Zealand and Tahiti. While unknown to Wallace, there is a single fuchsia endemic to the mountains of Tahiti, ➤ Fuchsia cyrtandroides (J.W.Moore 1940). Similar to the unique plants of the Galápagos, this fuchsia represents a new species only recently evolved for life on a volcanic island no more than three million years old. Its ancestor was surely carried to Tahiti by birds, like many of the Galápagos plants as well. Wallace was aware of the closely-related tree fuchsias of New Zealand, as part of the rich flora of those islands, and mentions other fuchsias in his writings from time to time. (1)
Unlike the independent and socially connected Darwin, Wallace came from a modest middle-class background and supported his scientific work through his writings and the sale of specimens to collectors. In fact, the many specimens he collected during his four years in the Amazon River Basin were intended to fund his research. Disastrously, all was lost on the way to England when his ship caught fire and sank. Fortunately, Wallace was rescued after ten days adrift but his dreams were dashed. For the moment. Seemingly undeterred, he simply regrouped and headed off to the Malay Archipelago.
His famous paper on natural selection, jointly presented before the Linnean Society of London with a paper by Charles Darwin in 1858, encouraged Darwin to overcome his hesitations to publish On the Origin of Species. Darwin enjoyed a comfortable life in England which he never again left for parts unknown after his early voyage abroad the Beagle. Having originally been intent on the country clergy, he was only too aware of the fuss that the publication of his theories would cause. Wallace, in contrast, seemed intent on adventure.
Ever fearless, Wallace became an ardent defender both of Darwin and the theory of evolution. In his long review of The Reign of Law (1867), written by George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll and a formidable social and scientific adversary of Darwinism, Wallace simply took the Duke to task for being among "that large class who take a keen interest in the progress of Science in general, and especially that of Natural History, but have never themselves studied nature in detail, or acquired that personal knowledge of the structure of closely allied forms,–the wonderful gradations from species to species and from group to group, and the infinite variety of the phenomena of "variation" in organic beings,–which are absolutely necessary for a full appreciation of the facts and reasonings contained in Mr. Darwin's great work." Where Darwin feared to tread, Wallace simply stepped in. (2)
Further in his critique, Wallace presses the fashionable fuchsia of English gardens into service, seeing it an illustration of evolutionary forces working close at hand. "When fashion demands any particular change in the form, or size, or colour of a flower, sufficient variation always occurs in the right direction, as is shown by our roses, auriculas, and geraniums; when, as recently, ornamental leaves come into fashion sufficient variation is found to meet the demand, and we have zoned pelargoniums and variegated ivy, and it is discovered that a host of our commonest shrubs and herbaceous plants have taken to vary in this direction just when we want them to do so! This rapid variation is not confined to old and well-known plants subjected for a long series of generations to cultivation, but the Sikhim Rhododendrons, the Fuchsias and Calceolarias from the Andes, and the Pelargoniums from the Cape are equally accommodating, and vary just when and where and how we require them."
(Notes: 1. Wallace. Island life: or, the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and floras (1892); 2. Wallace. “Creation by Law”, Quarterly Journal of Science 4 (16), pp. 471-488 (1867). Illustrations: 1. Wallace’s portrait from his book, Natural Selection (1878); 2. “Chief’s house and rice shed in a Sumatran Village”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 3. “Dyak crossing a bamboo bridge”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 4. “Orang Utan attacked by Dyaks”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 5. Map of the Wallace Line running through the Indonesian archipelago dividing Asian and Australasian fauna. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 6. Wallace's flying frog, Rhacophorus nigropalmatus, first collected by Wallace and named for him. Illustrated in Wallace's The Malay Archipelago (1869); 7. Four brightly colored members of the Papillo genus. Wallace. “On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region”, Transactions of the Linnean Society, Vol. XXV, Tab. 6 (1864); 8.. George Robert Gary. “A List of birds with descriptions of new species obtained by Mr. Alfred R. Wallace in the Aru and Ké Islands”, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 26 (1858); 9. The Wallace face of the Wallace-Darwin medal first awarded by the Linnean Society of London in 1908 on the fiftieth anniversary of the joint presentation of their seminal papers on natural selection.)
Waters, Eileen, and Dave Green – See Aquaviridis.
Web Fuchsia – Within the HTML programing of websites, full magenta is sometimes referred to as web fuchsia. The hex triplet code for both colors is #FF00FF. See also Color Fuchsia.
Weberbaueri – Named in honor of August Weberbauer (1871-1948). Fuchsia weberbaueri (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is now a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Weberbauer, August (1871-1948) – Born in Breslau, Germany and also known as Dr. Augusto Weberbauer, he was a noted German naturalist, botanist and university professor who first arrived in Peru in 1901 and conducted systematic plant explorations of that country, as well Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. Among in his many achievements, Weberbauer taught pharmaceutical chemistry and systematic botany at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru (chartered by a decree of Charles V in 1551, this is the oldest officially recognized university in the Americas [n.b. The University of Santo Domingo unofficially dates to 1538 but has a spotty history of long closings and re-openings.]) from the early 1920s until his death in 1948. In 1911, he published Die Planzenwelt der Peruanischen Anden, republished in Spanish as El Mundo Vegetal de los Andes Peruanos in 1945. In recognition of his life's work, the Peruvian government awarded him the Order of the Sun with the rank of a Commander in 1947. In 1976, a newly established German-Peruvian secondary school, the Weberbauer Schule or Colegio Augusto Weberbauer, received his name. A wild potato species, Solanum neoweberbaueri, collected by him on Morro Solar, was described in his honor by Ludwig Wittmack in 1914 and his name also appears on a long list of other Andean species. Fuchsia weberbaueri (E.H.L.Krause 1905), however, is now a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Archival portrait of Augusto Weberbauer from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, ca. 1936.)
Websites – See ➤ Fuchsia Societies and ➤ Personal Websites for full lists.
Western Flower Thrips – Frankliniella occidentallis. Also known as thunderbugs or thunderflies, among several other common names. Generally a problem that has increasingly appeared in commercial greenhouses over the last twenty years since their spread from the Southwestern United States. Western flower thrips generally live at growth tips and around the flowers, where they lay their eggs into the plant tissue. Adults and larvae suck out a plant’s sap by scraping and rasping leaf surfaces, as well as taking pollen and nectar from the flowers. Damage will be seen in the form of distorted young leaves with a crinkled surface. Other effects are a silvery discoloration, brown bumps and growth deformities. Nymphs feed on new fruit just beginning to develop from the flower. It can also carry the tomato spotted wilt virus. Introducing predatory wasps and other insects into the affected greenhouse is an effective biological control, as is the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.
[n.b. As an interesting aside, readers that hopefully might not be familiar with these pest should note that “thrips” comes from the Greek word for “woodworm” and, like “deer” or “sheep”, is both singular and plural. There is no thrip; only a thrips. But hopefully not in your greenhouse.].
Western Fuchsia Species Society – Society devoted to the cultivation and study of species fuchsias. Based in Seattle, it is affiliated with the Northwest Fuchsia Society and maintains display gardens of locally hardy fuchsias at the Center of Urban Horticulture of the University of Washington in Seattle and at Lake Wilderness Arboretum in Maple Valley, Wash. See ➤ WFSS.
Whitefly – Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The whitefly, or sometimes ghostfly, is a very small flying insect usually found feeding on the undersides of leaves. Numbers of these insects will be seen characteristically flying off erratically in a cloud when infested plants are disturbed. The scale-like nymphs also do damage with their feeding and the resulting sugary secretions can encourage the formation of diseases as well. There are a number of treatments, both organic and chemical, to keep whitefly under control.
Wild Fuchsia – Not to be confused with any actual species growing in the wild, "Wild Fuchsia" is an occasionally heard common name for the Australian native, Eremophila maculata. It's perhaps more often referred to in Australia as the "Fuchsia Bush" or "Fuchsia Emu Bush." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Williams, Llewelyn (1901-1980) – Born in Conway, Wales, Williams was an economic botanist, wood technologist, and authority on latex-producing plants for scientific and commercial purposes. He studied at the University of Wales where he specialized in tropical American woods and forest products. In 1928 he did post-graduate studies at the Yale University School of Forestry. During his career he would conduct extensive field investigations in the Amazon and other river basins of northern South America, and later in Africa, Southeast Asia, India, and the Philippines. He held quite a diverse series of positions, starting in 1924 when he was hired to manage a 700-acre tea estate in Assam, India for two years. In 1926 he was appointed dendrologist at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois where he remained for the next 26 years, until 1952, becoming its Curator of Economic Botany in 1938. In 1929, he made a year-long expedition to northeastern Peru and collected over 8,000 specimens for the Field Museum's Flora of Peru project. He also undertook a number of other interesting assignments during his time there, as well as later He worked as a research botanist for the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Venezuela (1938-40 and 1941-42), as a senior field technician for a U.S. government agency, the Rubber Development Corporation (1942-45), to recruit and train rubber-tappers to locate and extract Hevea rubber during World War II, for the Wrigley Chewing Gum Company to find natural sources of gums (1945-55 and 1956-1960), was recruited by the USDA to research the effects of chemical defoliants (1963-1967), and was part of a USDA project to evaluate agriculture and forest resources in the Republic of Dahomey (1966). F. llewelynii, first collected on exposed rocky slopes along the La Ventana road from Chachapoyas to Moyobamba in Amazonas Province, was apparently the only novel fuchsia among the many plants Williams sent back to the Field Museum from his 1929 expedition to Peru. The single collection, "in spite of the broken character of the specimen (due to transport between collecting stations)," was enough for J. Francis MacBride to describe the find and name it in Williams' honor. See F. llewelynii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Williams leaving on an unidentified assignment. The Llewelyn Williams Papers, New York Botanical Garden.)
Willowherb Family – See Onagraceae.
Woytkowski, Felicks (1893-1966) – Woytkowski was a Polish botanist, entomologist and explorer who worked in Peru. Drawn by the Amazonian forest, he came to Peru with his wife and young son in 1929 but, due to the Second World War and the subsequent political situation, was not able to return to his homeland until 1964. Putting his thirty-five years in Peru to exceptional use, Woytkowski mounted over sixty expeditions into the Amazon, often in collaboration with such institutions as the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Botanical Garden of the University of California at Berkeley, collecting more than 80,000 specimens representing five thousand species. He was also director of the Botanical Garden of Lima from 1942-1945. F. woytkowskii (Macbride 1941) is now synonymous with F. rivularis subsp rivularis. See F. rivularis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Woytkowskii – Named in honor of Feliks (Felix) Woytkowski (1893-1966). F. woytkowskii (Macbr. 1941) is now synonymous with F. rivularis ssp rivularis (Macbr. 1940). See F. rivularis in ➤ Section Fuchsia; Woytkowski.
Wurdack, John J. (1921-1998) – American botanist. Wurdack received a BS degree in botany at the University of Pittsburgh but was drafted to serve as a sanitary engineer during World War II. In 1946, he was assigned to Parnamirim Air Field in the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil where he collected plants. From 1946 to 1948 he was posted to Japan from where he also visited China. In 1949, he earned a second BS degree in sanitary engineering at the University of Illinois and took a job as technical assistant at the New York Botanical Garden. In 1952, he received his PhD degree, with a dissertation on a revision of the Andean genus Brachyotum (Melastomataceae). Wurdack became an associate curator at the U.S. National Herbarium in 1960, now in the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution, where he later served as curator of botany until he retired in 1991. Wurdack did extensive field work in Brazil, the Guyanas, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, eventually undertaking eleven major expeditions. His speciality was the Melastomataceae family and he published over 180 papers and articles mostly its members. A fuchsia collected by him at Quebrada Molina in the Chachapoyas Department of Peru in 1962 would be described as a new species in his honor by Phillip A. Munz in 1964. See F. wurdackii (Munz 1964) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Wurdackii – Named in honor of American botanist, John. J. Wurdack (1921-1998). The type was collected by Wurdak at Quebrada Molina in the Chachapoyas Department of Peru in 1962. See F. wurdackii (Munz 1964) in ➤ Section Fuchsia; and Wurdack.
Yich' ak mut – Fuchsia paniculata in the language of the Tzotzil-speaking Maya in the highlands of Chiapas State, Mexico. See ➤ Maya.
Yunga, Yungas – The name derives from the word for "warm valley" in Quechua, the language of the Inca. Yungas is mostly a characteristically rainy, humid, and warm forest stretching along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains in Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. It represents a transitional zone between the Andean highlands and the eastern lowland rain forests. There is additionally a difference in definition between Yunga and Yungas. In Peru, for example, Yunga specifically refers to an ecological climate zone divided between the Fluvial Yunga, along the eastern side of the Andes at 1,000 to 2,300 meters above the rain forest, and the Sea or Maritime Yunga, at 500 to 2,300 meters in elevation along their western side. In southwestern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina, the Southern Andean Yungas is a tropical and subtropical moist forest region full of broadleaf evergreens.
Zygomorphic – See Actinomorphic.
Zygote – The cell initially formed when two gamete cells—an ovule (the female gamete) and a pollen or sperm cell (the male gamete)—are joined during sexual reproduction. During the fertilization, the two haploid gamete cells combine into a single diploid cell which now contains DNA from both parents. The zygote continues to develop until it forms a seed from which a new plant can develop. See Pollination.